Mathematicians during the Third Reich and World War II
Prof. Thomas Huckle
Institut für Informatik
Last modified: July/7/2022
"Denn dies ist meine Auffassung: wir müssen die Stellen, auf denen man uns lässt,
bis zum letzten Augenblick halten, nicht als ob eine Besserung in Sicht wäre –
ausgeschlossen – sondern weil wir sonst in irgend einer Form der allgemeinen
Judenheit zur Last fallen, mindestens einem anderen die Stellen wegnehmen.
Ich betrachte es als ein Opfer, das ich der Judenheit bringe, auf diesem Posten
auszuhalten." Otto Toeplitz
Working in war related research
Dismissed 1939 in Prague; Deportation by Gestapo to
Lodz where he died in April 1942.
dismissed 1939 from Aachen and - for a short while -
kept in "protective custody". Editor of 'Mathematische Annalen' until 1938.
In 1939 he went to Holland. When
the Netherlands had fallen, he refused the help of Dutch friends and
was deported to Theresienstadt where he died 1944.
Cavailles, Jean: [MENZLER-TROTT]
Member of the resistance. Killed by the Gestapo 1944.
See also here and
Died in the nazi bombing of Warsaw in 1939.
Epstein, Paul: [SIEGMUND, PINL]
Frankfurt 1919 until 1935, suicide after summon from Gestapo
In 1939 dismissed in Prague, 1941 deported to Lodz and
died there 1942. See also
Committed suicide 1943 in Munich.
Hausdorff, Felix: [SIEGMUND, PINL]
As Paul Mongre he published also poems and theater plays. He had to retire
1935 from his chair in Bonn. In 1941 he was
scheduled to go to an internment camp but managed to avoid being sent.
However by 1942 he could no longer avoid being sent to the internment
camp and, together with his wife and his wife's sister, he committed
Retired in Prague 1929. He was deported to Theresienstadt in
1940 and died there in July 1942. See also
Remak, Robert: [SIEGMUND, PINL]
Arrested in the Kristallnacht Nov. 9-10 1938 and put into
Sachsenhausen concentration camp. After 8 weeks released and went
to Amsterdam. 1942 again arrested by German forces occupying
Amsterdam and taken to Auschwitz where he died. See also
1942 killed by Gestapo in Warsaw.
Schauder, Juliusz Pawel:
Killed by Gestapo 1943 in Poland.
died in Theresienstadt 1942
Balas, Egon[BALAS: Will to Freedom]
Underground resistance fighter in Hungary; imprisonment, torture, escape and hiding,
In Lwów he was on good terms with Russian occupation troops 1939.
He returned from Kiev to Lwów after German invasion of Russia. He had to
feed lice one hour a day with his blood in the institute of Prof. Weigl. In this institute Prof.
Weigl produced anti-typhus vaccine. The 'feeders' like Banach had the remaining time left
for organizing the underground University courses. In July 1944 the Russain troops retook Lwów.
He died 1945 of lung cancer.
page 15, and a short biography by Waclaw Szybalski and Stanislaw
imprisoned in Poland
In May 1938 Hitler was visiting Naples with Mussolini:
Caccioppoli, who had already shown his opposition to fascism, convinced
an open-air restaurant orchestra to play La Marseillaise, and made a
speech against Italian and German dictators.
He was arrested and he should have been tried by a special political
court instituted by the fascists against their opponents, but he managed
to be declared mad and to be eventually sent to an asylum.
Dismissed 1939 in Prague, deported to Theresienstadt 1944,
Der Mathematiker Paul Funk wird mit der "Vergangenheitsbewältigung" der
Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften konfrontiert von Gerhard Oberkofler Jahrbuch 2005 : Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstands ;
(2005), S.200-217, and
Kuehler Abschied von Europa
- Wien 1938 und der Exodus der Mathematik
In his lectures on algebra he stressed the beauty of
Emmy Noether's theories. He was arrested, kept in conentration camps
for months. From 1939 he worked as a scientist for Messerschmitt. See also
Hellinger, Ernst: [SIEGMUND, PINL]
Uni Frankfurt 1914, 1936 forced to retire, 13.Nov. 1938 put into
concentration camp Dachau for six weeks, emmigration to USA
Febr. 1939, Northwestern Uni Evanston, 1949 Illinois Institute
of Technology. Died Nov. 1949.
Developed a portable calculator (the Curta Calculator); imprisoned
from 1943 - 45 in KZ Buchenwald, where he worked on his
See e.g. Oral Interview 1,
1941 arrested in France, 1942 to concentration camp Wahlsburg. 1945
return to Paris.
near the end of the war he was captured and sent to a labour camp
Sentenced to death, but survived.
Student boycott of his lecture on relativity mathematics,
arrest by Gestapo 1939, six months inprisonment "on remand". From
1940 theoretical work in industry and at Brunswick aviation research
In 1944 he was forced to a fascist Labour Camp but somehow
managed to escape. He obtained false papers and hid for six months
avoiding capture. During this time his parents were held prisoners in the
Budapest ghetto. Alfred rescued them with an extreme act of bravery:
He got hold of a soldier's uniform, walked into the ghetto, and marched
his parents out.
Fled from Prague to Slovakia 1939; November 1944 he was
betrayed to the SS, arrested and sent to Sachsenhausen, later to
Buchenwald. In April 1945, when Schwarz was near death, Buchenwald camp
was liberated and his life was saved.
spent 32 months in a nazi labour camp from 1941 to 1944 in Hungary.
Spent two years in Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
Weil, Andre: [YANDELL]
He was a conscentious objector and so wished to avoid military
service. He fled to Finland as soon as war was declared. He was sent
from Finland back to France where he was put in prison. His sister
Simone Weil was a leading figure in the French Resistance.
Having used the army as a reason to get out of prison, Weil had no
intention of serving any longer than he possibly could. As soon as the
chance to escape to the United States came, he took it at once.
He paid dearly for teaching in the underground university for
in 1944 he was sent to a labour camp in Germany. He survived this
experience and returned to Warsaw at the end of the war in 1945.
In 1937 he was conscripted into the Red Army on 1 December. He was
sent to Bryansk but on 5 December he was arrested. He had been
denounced by one of the members of the Mathematics Department who
had been with him on the summer trip. Gnedenko was imprisoned with
120 other prisoners in a cell built for six people and was constantly
interrogated about statements he had made on the summer trip:
confirm that Kolmogorov was the ringleader of a group of "enemies of
the people" centred in the mathematics department.
Without warning he was released after six months.
In 1937 Krawtchouk was accused of being a Polish spy and also a
bourgeois nationalist. He was arrested, tried and sentenced to twenty
years in prison and five years in exile. He died at the age of 49 in
Kolyma, one of the Labour Camps set up by the Gulag.
In 1934 retired in Breslau, went to Tomsk, USSR. In
1937 he was arrested. He was not heard of again. See also
1940 Zeckendorf was interned as a prisoner of war until
Emigration with jewish wife to England; POW in England
as an enemy alien ia a camp on the sle of Man working a as a cook;
soon released and returned to Leicester.
Emigration, spent three months as "an enemy alien" in the
camp on the Isle of Man.
Neumann, Bernhard:, see also
1932 Uni Berlin, emigration to England 1933,
1935 degree from Cambridge, unemployed
until 1937, lectureship in Cardiff, 1939 briefly interned as an
enemy alien, 1940 released, joined the Intelligence Corps.
1946 lecturer in Hall; 1948 Manchester.
Married to Hanna Neumann (maiden name Caemmerer).
1930 in Amsterdam, hiding during nazi occupation.
Lakatos, Imre, born as Imre Lipschitz:
Changed his name to Imre Molnar to
avoid nazi persecution in Debrecen.
Left Paris 1942, hiding in Lyon and Macon.
Spend the war years from June 1941 hiding from the nazis in
Artin, Emil: [YANDELL]
Emigrated 1937 from Hamburg to USA, because his wife was Jewish.
1958 returned to Hamburg.
In 1937 forced to leave Russia.
In 1939 dismissed in Goettingen, moved to Zurich.
Deprived of his chair in 1934 by Hitler's policies,
Bernstein emigrated to the USA teaching at several universities, but he
returned to Goettingen in 1948.
Born was forced, as a Jew, to flee Germany in 1933.
1925-1933 Koenigsberg, lost position, emigration to USA,
Lexington, Uni Kentucky, died 1977 in Melmont, MA
Barred from lecturing 1933 in Cologne, moved to
Moscow where he died 1936. See also
Courant, Richard: [MEDAWAR, SIEGMUND, YANDELL, PINL]
1922 Goettingen, 1933 removed, emigration to England, New York Uni
Died 1972 in New Rochelle, NY.
Dehn, Max Wilhelm: [YANDELL, SIEGMUND, PINL]
Frankfurt 1921 to 1935, 1938 forced to leave his post.
1940 emmigration to USA.
He was awarded a doctorate in 1938 but because of the nazi invasion
of Czechoslovakia he was told he had to leave the country by the end
of 1938 or be sent to a concentration camp.
Deprived from his chair in Turin by fascists 1938, went to Switzerland.
He was a fervent Zionist and, after leaving Kiel, he taught at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem from 1929.
He remained at the German University in Prague until 1938 fleeing to
the United States after the German occupation.
1932 Braunschweig, 1937 joined Courant, after having
experienced problems. Died 1982 in New Rochelle, NY.
Escaped 1933 from Munich to France and Palestine. Later on Professor in England.
Emigration with von Mises, see also
emigration 1940 from Vienna to USA
leftist pacifist, who left Germany already 1932.
When France fell in 1940, Hadamard and his family escaped to the
USA where he was appointed to a visiting position at Columbia University.
However, he failed to find a permanent post in America. Hadamard left the
United States soon after and spent a year in England before returning to
Hamburger, Hans Ludwig:
Dismissed 1935 in Cologne, went to Britain in 1939.
Short internment. See also
He fled from Austria to save himself and his family, emigrating to the
United States in 1938.
von Hippel, Arthur:
Emigration 1933 because of Jewish wife and political opinion.
Goettingen until 1933, (boycott against Landau organized by
Teichmueller), moved to Berlin, lectured in Cambridge, Holland.
Died 1938 in Berlin.
Oral examination 1933 by Schur and by Bieberbach (in nazi uniform).
1934 emigration to St. Andrews, Scotland
Forced to leave Prague when the nazis occupied
Czechoslovakia. Moved to USA; Brown Uni and Syracuse Uni.
Died 1968 in Stanford.
emigration form Vienna to USA.
Fled Ploand 1939.
In 1938, as a result of the political situation in Austria, he
resigned his chair and accepted a post in the USA
von Mises, Richard:[SIEGMUND, GOLOMB, PINL]
Berlin until 1933, then Istanbul, Turkey until 1939, USA Harvard,
died 1953 in Boston. Together with Hilda Geiringer von Mises.
See also here and
Muentz, Chaim (Herman):
In 1933 emigrated to Leningrad. Emigrated to Sweden; died 1956. See also
Founder of Zentralblatt; moved to Copenhagen 1934. 1938 Springer
Verlag insisted that Zentralblatt be produced in accordance with
nazi principles. He resigned. Founded Mathematical Reviews.
Noether, Emmy: [SCHAPPACHER, YANDELL, SIEGMUND, PINL]
1915-1933 Goettingen, 1933 dismissed, emigration USA, Princeton,
died 1935. See here
and also here
Dismissal in Karlsruhe 1933, emigration to USA. See also
Pringsheim, Alfred: [BAUER, JENS, PINL]
Father-in-law of Thomas Mann. From 1933 to 1939 his life was made impossible
as a non-Aryan. His
house (Arcisstr. 1 near Koenigsplatz) in Munich was taken away and
eventually he moved to Zurich.
He was forced out of his professorship in 1933 because of his
pacifist views and he left Germany in 1934. He spent the rest of his life
in the United States.
1933 Berlin, emigration to England.
1933 he fled to Turkey and 1938 he emigrated to the USA.
Rogosinski, Werner Wolfgang:
Loss of "venia legendi" 1936. 1937 invitation
to Cambridge. See also
Schur, Issai: [SCHAPPACHER, SIEGMUND, PINL, GOLOMB]
1919-1935 Berlin, 1939 emigration to Palestine, died 1941
In 1939 he emigrated from Prague to Australia and Canada.
" ... most of our friends were Jewish and I was not prepared to work
for the nazis." See also
Siegel, Carl Ludwig:[YANDELL, SIEGMUND]
Although he was not affected by the Civil Service Law of the
nazis, he hated the nazi regime. He was in Goettingen until early 1940,
Denmark, Norway, USA Advanced Study at Princeton until 1951, 1951
return to Goettingen.
Uni Frankfurt 1914, 1933 lost position, emigration to USA to MIT,
Brown Uni, 1936 Uni of Cincinnati, died 1952.
From Koenigsberg 1934 moved to USA; 1938 Stanford.
Toeplitz, Otto: [SIEGMUND, BORN, PINL]
1928 Uni Bonn Chair, 1935 dismissed by nazis, 1939 Jerusalem Uni,
1940 died in Jerusalem.
Otto Toeplitz Teilnachlass and
his son Uri (Erich)
, member of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra
TOEPLITZ, Uri: Und Worte reichen nicht - Von der Mathematik in Deutschland zur Musik in
Israel. Eine jüdische Familiengeschichte 1812-1998.
emigration from Vienna to USA.
Weyl, Hermann: [SIEGMUND, SCHAPPACHER, PINL]
1930-1933 Goettingen, emigration to USA, Princeton until 1952.
1933 he was forced to leave Germany because of the nazi policies.
Went to USA.
Drafted to Polish army 1939; In 1940 escaped with his wife and
son from german controlled Poland to USA; Chicago until 1980.
Minister of the Navy (1925-40). After his arrest and brief imprisonment
under the Vichy regime he worked for the Resistance.
Munich, Goettingen, Wuerzburg. chair of of TU Munich during
the war, 1945 appointed rector of TU Munich.
Prematurely retired 1938 in Cologne, reinstated 1945.
Grunsky, Helmut[GOLOMB, St.-Andrews-Biography of Bieberbach]
He resisted pressure put on him by Bieberbach not to use Jewish referees and
he had to leave his position as editor of the Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der
Mathematik in 1939.
Remained in Goettingen 1933.
Als Hilbert 1934 von dem NS-Reichsminister Rust gefragt wurde, ob das
mathematische Institut durch den Weggang der Juden und Judenfreunde
gelitten habe, gab Hilbert zur Antwort: "Jelitten?
Dat hat nich jelitten, Herr Minister. Dat jibt es doch janich mehr!"
(Nach Fraenkel 1967, S. 159.) Lit. N. Schappacher.
Zurich, was able to provide refuge for friends who had to flee
Germany (e.g. Schur), still German citizen. 1943 should move back to
Germany or lose citizenship. Applied for Swiss citizenship.
After the war was able to help his German friends (visit to
Because of his Jewish spouse he was retired 1937 from Tuebingen,
and reinstated 1945. See also
Was accused of Jewish nationalism 1941 and dismissed. Potapov
tried hard to influence the Odessa university authorities to reverse
there decisions. 1952 dismissed for a second time.
Risked his life to teach in illegal educational establishment
through the war in Poalnd.
was strongly and actively opposed to fascism. After he was
dismissed from his post in Padua, he died of stroke.
He was forced to retire in 1934 (he was a quarter non-Aryan !) and
lost his mathematical manuscripts, 1000 drawings and models and much
more in the 1943 bombing of Berlin. Loewenheim survived and taught
mathematics again after the War.
Shortly before his death 1935 he was forced to retire by the
nazi regime since he was Jewish.
He refused to join the nazi Party and, as a consequence of this, was
not allowed to hold an academic post during World War II. Instead he had to
work in industry.
1937 no permission to teach; she became an industrial
mathematician working on elasticity theory. In fasct this gives Moufang
the unique position of being the first German woman with a doctorate to
be employed in industry. She may actually be the first ever such woman
1946 Professor in Frankfurt, she holds a unique position here as the
first German woman professor
Perron, Oskar [JENS, TOEPELL]
Helped Pringsheim in Munich to emigrate.
Suddenly dismissed 1939 because of his frank
comments on earlier disturbances by nazi students. He fought back
and was reinstated.
Dismissed from Goettingen 1933. Professor in Damrstadt (1942) and Goettingen (1946)
1920 Berlin, remained there during difficult years (very patriotic, but not a nazi)
He spent the difficult years of nazi control of Germany at Munich.
Caratheodory retired 1938; until 1944 no succesor because of
complex political considerations. Short list of candidates: Herglotz,
van der Waerden and Siegel. However, all three were opposed by the nazi
professors at Munich for political reasons.
van der Waerden, Bartel:[SCHAPPACHER]
1931 Leipzig, refused to give up his Dutch citizenship.
1948 Amsterdam, 1951 Zuerich
1938 he was forced to resign from both his government post and his
university professorship in Austria.
Disciplinary proceedings were opened against him in 1935 for refusal
of the Hitler salute and disparaging remarks about the "Fuehrer";
he forestalled the result by resigning.
Working in war related research:
At Princeton he was involved in war work examining probabilities of
hits in naval warfare. By 1945 he was working on bombing raid
War work on ballistics.
From 1941 to 1946 he was head of the Combat Analysis Branch, U.S.A.F.
Headquarters Statistical Control.
He worked during WWII on uranium separation and nuclear weapons.
He didn't want to work in Los Alamos.
In 1940 assistant of von Neumann. See also
He joined the Manhattan Project in 1945.
Pioneer of the radar development.
In 1944 he became involved in the war effort (in biology).
von Karman, Theodore:
In 1912 he accepted a post as director of the Aeronautical
Institute at Aachen in Germany. He visited the USA in 1926 and four
years later he was offered the post of director of the Aeronautical
Laboratory at California Institute of Technology. Despite his love for
Aachen, the political events in Germany persuaded him to accept.
In 1933 he founded the U.S. Institute of Aeronautical Sciences where he
continued his research on fluid mechanics, turbulence theory and
supersonic flight. Died 1963 in Aachen.
During the year 1928-29 Lanczos was Einstein's assistant in Berlin,
returning to Frankfurt in 1929. In 1931 Lanczos spent a year as a
visiting professor at the University of Purdue in Lafayette, Indiana.
Returning to Germany he found the political situation there
becoming unacceptable for someone of Jewish origin and he returned to
a Professorship at Purdue in 1932.
Lanczos spent the year of 1944 working for the Boeing Aircraft
Company and, in 1946, he resigned his post in Purdue to take up a
permanent appointment with Boeing.
or Lord Cherwell
Scientific adviser of Churchill
Statistical adviser of Winston Churchill
von Neumann, John:
Until 1933 he still held academic posts in Germany but resigned
these when the nazis came to power.
During and after World War II, von Neumann served as a consultant to
the armed forces. His valuable contributions included a proposal of
the implosion method for bringing nuclear fuel to explosion and his
participation in the development of the hydrogen bomb. From 1940 he
was a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee at the Ballistic
Research Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. He
was a member of the Navy Bureau of Ordnance from 1941 to 1955, and a
consultant to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory from 1943 to 1955.
During the years 1943-45 he was released from the University of
Pennsylvania for war work as a mathematician at the Army's Ballistic
Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, Maryland, where he developed the theory of splines.
He also spent a short time as ballistic mathematician in the US Air
Force during 1944-45.
He joined the Fire Control Research office to contribute towards the
war effort. The work here involved statistics.
Turing, Alan: (see also
When war was declared in 1939 Turing immediately moved to work
full-time at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park.
Turing's brilliant ideas in solving codes, and developing computers to
assist break them, may have saved more lives of military personnel in
the course of the war than any other.
Together with another mathematician W G Welchman, Turing developed the
Bombe, a machine based on earlier work by Polish mathematicians, which
from late 1940 was decoding all messages sent by the Enigma machines
of the Luftwaffe. By the middle of 1941 Turing's statistical approach,
together with captured information, had also led to the German navy
signals being decoded at Bletchley.
Turing was arrested for violation of British homosexuality statutes in
1952 when he reported to the police details of a homosexual affair. He
had gone to the police because he had been threatened with blackmail.
He was tried as a homosexual on 31 March 1952, offering no defence
other than that he saw no wrong in his actions. Found guilty he was
given the alternatives of prison or oestrogen injections for a year.
He accepted the latter. After that the police began to investigate
his foreign visitors.
Turing died of potassium cyanide poisoning while conducting
electrolysis experiments. The cyanide was found on a half eaten apple
He worked on the hydrogen bomb in Los Alamos.
During World War II he worked on gunfire control.
In 1940 Wilkinson began war work which involved mathematical and
numerical work on ballistics. He also worked on the thermodynamics of
explosions but asked for a transfer. He became Turing's assistant at
the National Physical Laboratory in London in 1946.
He worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture and was a member of
the National Defense Committee.
Boseck, Karl-Heinz: Wiki Document
Studying Mathematics in Berlin and leading a group for numerical computations in the KZ
Sachsenhausen (English webpage).
Helmut Joachim Fischer:
Collection of activities related to KZ.
Building in KZ Sachsenhausen a group of inmates
for doing numerical calculations, e.g. in connection with numerical simluations.
Die Mathe-Nazis, Autobiography "Erinnerungen
Teil II Feuerwehr fuer die Forschung", page 99-103", and
the book by Sanford L. Segal "Mathematicians
under the Nazis, chapter : Mathematics in the Concentration Camps".
More literature to the Numerical Computational Group in the KZ Sachsenhausen:
Related chapter out of the book by Segal.
Angewandte Mathematik und Anwendungen der Mathematik im
nationalsozialistischen Deutschland by H.Mehrtens.
Die Mathe-Nazis by Judith Luig.
Haeftlingsforschung by G. Simon.
Collatz, Lothar: [MENZLER-TROTT]
Dr. HU Berlin, 1938 Habil., Priv.Doz. Karlsruhe, 1943 Hannover. Working on eigenvalue
problems in connection with V2.
Biography and here .
Pacifist before 1933, then nationalsozialistic behaviour. Working in war related research
at the RLM (Reichsluftfahrtministerium).
Gentzen, Gerhard: [MENZLER-TROTT]
Died 1945 in Prague.
1934-1939 Goettingen, applied for membership in the NSDAP, but was
turned down, because one of his ancestors was Jewish.
1939-1945 working in Berlin on problems in ballistic.
1945 return to Goettingen, dismissed by British occupation forces.
1946 research position at Berlin Academy. 1949 Humboldt Uni East Berlin.
In 1936, at the end of the MIT contract, Hopf returned to
Germany (Leipzig). In 1942 Hopf was drafted to work in the German
Aeronautical Institute. In 1944, one year before the end of World War II,
Hopf was appointed to a professorship at the University of Munich.
Returned to USA 1947.
See also here.
Working on aerodynamic problems. See also here or
Founder of "Mathematisches Institut Oberwolfach".
Working on problems in connection with V2. See also
or here ,
1941 engaged in research in meteorology, cryptology,
aerodynamics; 1942 Kaiser Wilhelm Institue and Aerodynamics Research
Institute at Goettingen.
See also and
The Third Reich's Aerodynamic Research Institute funded his work and he
completed building the Z2 which was still an experimental computer. He then
progressed to build the Z3 which was the first computer which Zuse built to
be used rather than to test out his ideas. The Z2 and Z3 computers were
electromechanical relay machines and the Z3, completed in 1941, had an
electromechanical memory composed of relays as well as an electromechanical
Z3 was the first operational program-controlled calculating machine and was
used by the German aircraft industry to solve systems of simultaneous
equations and other mathematical systems which were produced by the
problems of dealing with the vibration of airframes put under stress.
However when Zuse proposed a computer based on electronic valves, the
proposal was rejected on the grounds that the Germans were so close to
winning the War that further research effort was not necessary.
Some of Zuse's computers were destroyed in bombing raids near the end of
the war although the Z3 was reconstructed in 1960 for display in a museum
in Munich. Zuse began work on his Z4 computer in 1942, and it was almost
complete when, due to continued air raids, it was moved from Berlin to
Goettingen. After only a few weeks Goettingen was in danger of being
captured by the advancing Russian troops and the Z4 was moved again, this
time to the small village of Hinterstein in Bavaria. The Z4 was coded the
Versuchsmodell 4, or V4, and hidden in the cellar of a house, where it was
found by Britsh and American troops fearing flying bombs because of the
relationto V1 and V2.
Bieberbach, Ludwig Georg Elias Moses:[YANDELL, SCHAPPACHER, HEIBER]
First defended Schur January 1933, but then persecuted his
Jewish colleagues. As Ledermann's examiner he was wearing a nazi uniform
when conducting the oral examination for the Thesis.
He developed the notion of a 'German' synthetic style mathematics as
opposed to the abstract 'Jewish' analytic style. He founded a journal
Deutsche Mathematik to encourage this German style in mathematics but,
happily, the journal failed.
Schur was forced to resign from the Commissions of the Prussian Academy
of Sciences after Bieberbach had written (on 29 March):-
I find it surprising that Jews are still members of academic commissions.
Many mathematicians feel that Bieberbach could not have honestly held
the views he did, rather the feeling is that he was ambitious to become
the leader of German mathematics and followed a route which he thought
would make him successful in this.
After the end of World War II in 1945 Bieberbach lost all his positions
because of his political involvement
Chair in Hamburg; seduced by the nazi ideas he attacked Neugebauer.
A member of the nazi party, he played a major role in getting
the students at Goettingen to dismiss Landau.
He wrote 34 papers in the space of about 6 years, 21 being published in
Deutsche Mathematik, the journal for German style mathematics founded by
Bieberbach. He published papers which used the controversial abstract
methods of his teacher, Emmy Noether, though not quoting her.
Teichmueller joined the army in 1939, fighting at first in Norway but he
was last heard of on the date given above for his death, involved in
heavy fighting along the Dnieper.
nazi mathematician, who was dismissed 1939.
Vahlen, Theodor: [SCHAPPACHER, HEIBER]
nazi mathematician with high position in the nazi administration. Died 1945 in Prague.
German Universities during the "Third Reich":
Saunders MacLane and
See also and
Kuehler Abschied von Europa
Prague (Praha, Prag):
Publishing in the Third Reich by V. Remmert
The Princeton community in the 1930s. (e.g. Artin, Dantzig, Freudenthal, Friedrichs, Givens, Goedel, Hopf, Hotelling, Koopman, Koopmans, Landau, Neugebauer, Noether, Schur, Siegel, Tucker, Tukey, Turing,
Ulam, van der Waerden, Veblen, von Neumann, von Karman, Weil, Weyl, Wiener
History of the DMV:
1938 retired in Munich.
Jewish, in 1939-1945 in Budapest.
died 1942 in Krakow
School books and nazi mathematical arithmetic problems:
General Information in the Web:
University St. Andrews,
Scotland, History of Mathematics archive
Lebensdaten beruehmter Mathematiker/innen, Uni Freiberg
The mathematics Genealogy Project
Kurzbiographien (Artin, Bernstein, Bieberbach, Blaschke, Blumenthal, Cohn-Vossen,
Courant, Froehlich, Grell, Landau, Mises, Neugebauer, von Neumann, Noether, Rademacher,
Rellich, Remak, Rogosinski, Schur, Siegel, Toeplitz, Zorn)
Vertriebene, Kollegen in einer dunklen Zeit
Oberwolfach and the Nazis, in the book by Sanford L. Segal "Mathematicians under the
Oberwolfach Photo Collection .
Talk: Mathematiker auf der Flucht vor Hitler.
Aspects of Italian mathematics during the fascist period by Michele Benzi
Science and fascism, Scientific Research Under a Totalitarian Regime by Michele Benzi
Allgemein: Verfolgte MathematikerInnen
Juedische Mathematiker im "Dritten Reich"
Books and articles:
BAUER, Friedrich L., Pringsheim, Liebmann, Hartogs - Schicksale juedischer Mathematiker
in Muenchen, Sonderdruck 1 aus den Sitzungsberichten der Bayerischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften 1997. Muenchen 1997.
BERGMANN, Birgit, EPPLE, Moritz, Jüdische Mathematiker in der deutschsprachigen akademischen
Kultur, ISBN 978-3-540-69250-8
BOOSS-BAVNBEK, BERNHELM, and HOYRUP, JENS, Mathematics and War. Birkhäuser Verlag, 2003.
BORN, Max, Mein Leben. München 1975. (Englisch: My Life)
CONANT, Jennet, Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science That
Changed the Course of World War II
CORNWELL, John, Hitler's Scientists. (Deutsch: Forschen fuer den Fuehrer)
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